Wetenschap en technologie

Why Hardwoods Are The Softest Woods

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Not all hardwood trees have hard wood and softwoods soft wood, because these terms denote their taxonomic ancestry, not the wood's actual hardness.
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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Angiosperm: a plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel.
Gymnosperm: a plant that has seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit.
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REFERENCES
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Ansell, M. P. "Wood microstructure-A cellular composite." Wood Composites. Woodhead Publishing, 2015. 3-26. doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-454-3.00001-9
Bjurhager, Ingela. Effects of Cell Wall Structure on Tensile Properties of Hardwood: Effect of down-regulation of lignin on mechanical performance of transgenic hybrid aspen. Diss. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:409533/FULLTEXT02.pdf
Botes, Christo, Steven D. Johnson, and Richard M. Cowling. "The birds and the bees: using selective exclusion to identify effective pollinators of African tree aloes." International Journal of Plant Sciences 170.2 (2009): 151-156.
Butterfield B.G. (1993) The structure of wood: an overview. In: Primary Wood Processing. Springer, Dordrecht. doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8110-3_1
Chilson-Parks, Laura. "Wood in the Middle Ages." Perspectives (2015). risdmuseum.org/art-design/projects-publications/articles/wood-middle-ages
Cywa, K. Trees and shrubs used in medieval Poland for making everyday objects. Veget Hist Archaeobot 27, 111-136 (2018). doi.org/10.1007/s00334-017-0644-9
Laboratory, Forest Products. Wood Handbook: Wood As an Engineering Material. United States, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013.
Meier, Eric. “Hardwood Anatomy.” The Wood Database, www.wood-database.com/wood-articles/hardwood-anatomy/.
Minea, Vasile. Industrial Heat Pump-Assisted Wood Drying. United States, CRC Press, 2018.
Plomion, Christophe, Grégoire Leprovost, and Alexia Stokes. "Wood formation in trees." Plant physiology 127.4 (2001): 1513-1523.
Ramage, Michael H., et al. "The wood from the trees: The use of timber in construction." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 68 (2017): 333-359.
Simm, Jonathan, and Crossman, Matt. Manual on the Use of Timber in Coastal and River Engineering. United Kingdom, Thomas Telford, 2004.
Wei-Dan Ding , Ahmed Koubaa , et al. (2008)
Relationship between wood porosity, wood density and methyl methacrylate impregnation rate, Wood Material Science &
Engineering, 3:1-2, 62-70, dx.doi.org/10.1080/17480270802607947
Wiedenhoeft, Alex. "Structure and function of wood." Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material: chapter 3. Centennial ed. General technical report FPL; GTR-190. Madison, WI: US Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 2010: p. 3.1-3.18. 190 (2010): 3-1. www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplgtr/fplgtr190/chapter_03.pdf
WOOD Magazine Staff. “What Is the World's Hardest Wood?” WOOD Magazine, WOOD Magazine, 17 Jan. 2019, www.woodmagazine.com/wood-supplies/wood-species/what-is-the-worlds-hardest-wood.

Reacties 

  1. MinuteEarth

    MinuteEarth

    13 dagen geleden

    ✅ U.S. ELECTION 2020 UPDATE: Amidst unprecedented times in the United States and around the world, it's vitally important we do our part to have an impact by voting! Learn how to vote in your state from our friends at Complexly: nlcameras.info It's hard not to appreciate your tree-mendous support of MinuteEarth! Want to become our Patreon or member on NLcameras? Just visit www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth or click "JOIN". Thanks!

    • Just An Inflatable Dinosaur

      Just An Inflatable Dinosaur

      2 dagen geleden

      I’m sorry but I live in the late Cretaceous period so no voting in freedom land for me

    • Nicolas P. Cage

      Nicolas P. Cage

      2 dagen geleden

      *TRUMP 2020.* I'm 99.95 sure this audience is against me, but good vid nonetheless!

    • macsnafu

      macsnafu

      2 dagen geleden

      @Sabih Shahid If only Democrats were truly liberals who believed in democracy and free speech, and if only Republicans were truly conservatives who believed in a republic. But those choices are not available on the ballot. The choice is simple: more of the same that the Duopoly has given us for 150+ years, or vote for real changes.

    • Sabih Shahid

      Sabih Shahid

      3 dagen geleden

      @macsnafu If only she was truly Libertarian.

    • macsnafu

      macsnafu

      3 dagen geleden

      Get back to me when there's a 'level playing field' in electoral politics, and real choices to vote for. The differences between Biden and Trump aren't really as great as many people think. At least I can vote for the Libertarian candidate Jo Jorgensen this time around.

  2. Christopher Gibbons

    Christopher Gibbons

    Dag geleden

    Yeah, its just scientists and know-it-alls that insist on coupling the hardwood softwood categories with seed type. Actual carpenters categorize based on the properties of the wood. It has changed over the years but today the terms are used to describe whether they are better suited to construction, or fine woodworking. Softwood is construction lumber, while hardwood is better for cabinetry and furniture. This is why you will find plywood and in the softwood section of a lumberyard. Balsa, like whitewood, is considered craftwood because it is terrible for anything.

  3. Apollo The Wolf

    Apollo The Wolf

    Dag geleden

    Another addition to my "things that make me question everything" playlist

  4. Yrok24

    Yrok24

    2 dagen geleden

    Ironic.

  5. Alpha Wygerion

    Alpha Wygerion

    2 dagen geleden

    Some hardwoods may be soft, but morning wood is the hardest of them all.

  6. nicolas jeffrey felismino

    nicolas jeffrey felismino

    3 dagen geleden

    I have a hardwood every morning

  7. ChoccyMilk

    ChoccyMilk

    3 dagen geleden

    I love the rs reference, but you're missing out on the real hardest softwood, english yew, which requires 60 woodcutting and has a janka hardness of 1520 ft lbs, and the hardest hardwood, obviously the magic tree, with a janka hardness of 69420 ft lbs and requiring 80 WC

  8. PJ Nelson

    PJ Nelson

    3 dagen geleden

    Hardwood and softwood refers to the density of the wood. The terms come from a time when everyone depended on wood for heating. Higher density woods (harder) have much higher values for heating than lower density woods (softer). My family has heated with wood for ever, and we always try to get hardwoods such as ash, oak, and elm. There are woods that are deciduous but low density (soft) that burn so fast and give off so much less heat per piece that we don't bother with them despite having thousands of the trees on our property. Softwoods such as cottonwood, willow, poplar, and box elder have very little value for serious heating purposes. Most maples are good hardwood that has a lot of value as firewood or as furniture wood. Box elder is part of the maple family, but is almost worthless for anything because it is too soft. It lacks density, so the trees break in winds that don't affect real hardwoods. There are species of evergreen trees that are harder than box elder and willow. I think it's silly to think that people from an age ago would have been referring to trees as hardwood or softwood and not be referring to the actual density of the wood.

  9. Max Kim

    Max Kim

    3 dagen geleden

    lol, i learned this while going to AIM to become a plane mechanic. it wasn't for me, but i remember this

  10. Matthew Alden

    Matthew Alden

    4 dagen geleden

    The irony.

  11. dehdesh

    dehdesh

    4 dagen geleden

    I've always heard hardwoods have a finer grain

  12. Alwindar Lee

    Alwindar Lee

    4 dagen geleden

    This doesn't explain why hardwood are the softest wood.

  13. Luke Salazar

    Luke Salazar

    4 dagen geleden

    Also Jeffery Epstein didn't kill himself

  14. knate44

    knate44

    4 dagen geleden

    Red ceder is an excellent option for making boats as it has tremendous weight to strengthen ratio.

  15. Rainbow the Dragon Cat

    Rainbow the Dragon Cat

    4 dagen geleden

    Why is everyone talking about runescape

  16. Torgo1969

    Torgo1969

    4 dagen geleden

    Wood...uh huh huh.

  17. Shrekky Devito

    Shrekky Devito

    4 dagen geleden

    Why can’t I find a “hardwood”/“softwood” joke in the comments Edit: or hardness scale jokes

  18. Why not Dean

    Why not Dean

    4 dagen geleden

    Whatever animator who put Runescape in this, give that guy a raise.

  19. daddyleon

    daddyleon

    5 dagen geleden

    must've been a keepsake dragon hatchet! breaking on an oak tree..

  20. IAmPattycakes

    IAmPattycakes

    5 dagen geleden

    Man, I thought yall didn't need clickbait. What a shame.

  21. Barefoot

    Barefoot

    5 dagen geleden

    Oh my god, the never-ending puns... XD

  22. Adventure Fighter

    Adventure Fighter

    5 dagen geleden

    Why greenlands are the icelands?

    • Phosphorus4

      Phosphorus4

      2 dagen geleden

      The name Greenland was basically to trick people. True story!

  23. why you here

    why you here

    5 dagen geleden

    2:59 "knowing this you WOOD thing we whoud retrire the softwood hardwood dermenology by now" aw come on not the pun

  24. ThePCguy17

    ThePCguy17

    5 dagen geleden

    Just because you are hardwood does not mean you have to be _hard_ wood.

  25. Andrijana Pantic

    Andrijana Pantic

    5 dagen geleden

    Tree trump😀😀😀😀😀😀😀😅😅😅😅😅😅😅😅😅😂😂🤣🤣😂🤣🤣🤣🤣

  26. [Cloutmaster] Phluphyy

    [Cloutmaster] Phluphyy

    5 dagen geleden

    That's why hardwood trees in animal crossing drop softwood

  27. Não Sei 2.0

    Não Sei 2.0

    5 dagen geleden

    O

  28. Zer0 Bin0pse

    Zer0 Bin0pse

    5 dagen geleden

    ah, that wood explain a thing or two

  29. Jay Paans

    Jay Paans

    6 dagen geleden

    What is the Jenka number for morning wood? Next time a girl asks how hard it is, I wanna answer with this number.

  30. George Walker

    George Walker

    6 dagen geleden

    “tree-mendous” 🤣😂😂 the amount of tree puns was great

  31. Meliodas sama

    Meliodas sama

    6 dagen geleden

    Yep hardwood is soft, same as greenland is full of ice and iceland full of green

  32. Elisa La Barge

    Elisa La Barge

    6 dagen geleden

    Okay but why is there a baby on the thumbnail

  33. Gator Bait

    Gator Bait

    6 dagen geleden

    Eastern REd Cedar cannot be the hardest softwood. Ironwood is a softwood, and it is the hardest wood in the world.

    • Phosphorus4

      Phosphorus4

      2 dagen geleden

      ………which ironwood?………… ……and is it just the hardest commercially available lumber? Or…?……

  34. Orange Shirt

    Orange Shirt

    6 dagen geleden

    You forgot about something else

  35. Miloh Johnson

    Miloh Johnson

    6 dagen geleden

    Wait, is this talking about evergreens vs deciduous trees?

  36. Bilaus Robert

    Bilaus Robert

    6 dagen geleden

    will minuteearth make a face reviel ?

    • Phosphorus4

      Phosphorus4

      2 dagen geleden

      …Well…they've………basically done it before…I don't know about the whole team…

  37. Gacheru Mburu

    Gacheru Mburu

    6 dagen geleden

    👍,

  38. Dan

    Dan

    6 dagen geleden

    But how can redwood trees be softer than oak? How do you classify yew and magic trees? Presumably they're even harder (to cut)? And is it true that maples are more likely to contain bird nests?

  39. game Faqih TV

    game Faqih TV

    7 dagen geleden

    IDOESI

  40. corey ostrander

    corey ostrander

    7 dagen geleden

    This wasn't the case in my community growing up, for example maple trees sent considered a hardwood. I wasn't a lumberjack or anything special but did my fair share curing firewood and buying it from people. Vedio was plesnt tho and I like your content!

  41. Volcano

    Volcano

    7 dagen geleden

    Idk why the word Palo Santo sounded so satisfying lol.

  42. Litt1e Penguin5

    Litt1e Penguin5

    7 dagen geleden

    The different from hardwood and softwood don't quote me but I'm pretty sure Hardwood had super spiky seeds and the softwood does normal seeds it's not the wood itself

    • Litt1e Penguin5

      Litt1e Penguin5

      7 dagen geleden

      This is just a fast learning without looking at video*

  43. Rio Sol

    Rio Sol

    7 dagen geleden

    Wy wife would know about this ;]

  44. Historical Archery

    Historical Archery

    7 dagen geleden

    As a bowmaker I click without a throught

  45. Bella's Vids

    Bella's Vids

    7 dagen geleden

    Wow. New animation?

  46. Fletcher Bullock

    Fletcher Bullock

    7 dagen geleden

    So basically we should blame scientists for relating it to leaf type instead of listening to the loggers who could just say “welp this one takes a fuck ton shorter time to chop so this is a softwood”

  47. jona vonk

    jona vonk

    7 dagen geleden

    Great how the UK is represented by someone wearing the doctor who scarf 😂

    • MinuteEarth

      MinuteEarth

      7 dagen geleden

      Oh that's not meant to be a representation of the UK, Julián is just a Doctor Who fan in the States.

  48. Jans Nexus Reyes

    Jans Nexus Reyes

    7 dagen geleden

    As a Forester, I am happy that you provided the right information 😁😁

  49. ResidentEvil302 Ricancuban215usa

    ResidentEvil302 Ricancuban215usa

    7 dagen geleden

    Now im looking at trees different

  50. Thefubmonkey

    Thefubmonkey

    7 dagen geleden

    never really been interested in trees but i was so surprised and impressed from the quality of the information! Everything i could want in a definite explanation and so neat it really made my nerd senses tingle.

  51. Walt of All Trades

    Walt of All Trades

    7 dagen geleden

    "I'm gonna go out on a limb here." I see what you did there. XD

  52. Ender of Time

    Ender of Time

    7 dagen geleden

    Clearly not enough research was done here. The “hardest softwood” is not eastern red cedar. I don’t know what is, but heart pine is significantly harder.

    • Ender of Time

      Ender of Time

      7 dagen geleden

      @MinuteEarth I will allow myself to be corrected. It would appear that a certain resource may not be a particularly great one. I was looking into wood hardnesses earlier this summer and I apparently misremembered this information, but I will not be outdone. A far more reliable source lists ocote pine and Sumatran pine at 950 lbf. Your mileage with your source may vary.

    • MinuteEarth

      MinuteEarth

      7 dagen geleden

      Heart pine is not a species of tree, it refers to the heartwood of pine trees. The heartwood of all trees is the densest, and therefore hardest part of the tree. From a quick search, it seems it most often refers to the heartwood of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), which has a Janka number of 870 lbf, very close to the eastern red cedar ( Juniperus virginiana, 900 lbf), although slightly lower.

  53. davekachel

    davekachel

    7 dagen geleden

    This is an flawless example of why scientist shouldn't recategorize plants by their genetics when they where named by their function. Dont blame a language for this nonsense.

  54. MIHNEA FLORIN PALIE

    MIHNEA FLORIN PALIE

    7 dagen geleden

    are you a STAR WARS FAN?

  55. John Bianchi

    John Bianchi

    7 dagen geleden

    "I'm going to go out on a limb here"

  56. The great taco man

    The great taco man

    7 dagen geleden

    And we once lived among the dinosaurs

  57. The great taco man

    The great taco man

    7 dagen geleden

    Actually the universe has only existed around 100000 years

  58. Elliott Purser

    Elliott Purser

    8 dagen geleden

    Hard... wood... HOW ARE THERE NO SEX JOKES

    • Phosphorus4

      Phosphorus4

      2 dagen geleden

      ……But…there kinda were… …How did you knot see them…… You mean in the video? Come on………

  59. Xavier John Loro

    Xavier John Loro

    8 dagen geleden

    well...... F#!& @ ENGLISH.... ...sorry Im just angry of english langue rn cause of one of my teachers....

  60. O K

    O K

    8 dagen geleden

    I needed this video. Seriously been wondering about wood properties in terms of sustainable forestry and timber

  61. SiwakornProArm

    SiwakornProArm

    8 dagen geleden

    that means soft wood is hard wood?

  62. It's EZ

    It's EZ

    8 dagen geleden

    Please just cut all these wood jokes you are trying way too hard

  63. B Abhishek

    B Abhishek

    8 dagen geleden

    Which app you use for animation??

    • MinuteEarth

      MinuteEarth

      7 dagen geleden

      Adobe After Effects

  64. aomanchutube

    aomanchutube

    8 dagen geleden

    You had me until Jenga...

  65. Eljosel Jimenez

    Eljosel Jimenez

    8 dagen geleden

    I loved your spanish pronunciation on Palo Santo!

  66. Matthew Scandura

    Matthew Scandura

    8 dagen geleden

    highly anecdotal observation, but I've noticed I come across a lot more recently fallen trees in the hardwood forests where I live now, than in the softwood forests where I grew up. I've been wondering if it's something to do with wood hardness, or forest maintenance, or just my own attention

  67. •Miss Weirdo• 柳俊影

    •Miss Weirdo• 柳俊影

    8 dagen geleden

    I thought hard wood was the hardest wood now I know it is the soft wood.Thank you for teaching me 😇

  68. Daniel Early

    Daniel Early

    8 dagen geleden

    We shouldn't have retired the softwood/hardwood terminology, that has a place in woodworking as an immediately practical distinction. What we *should* do is get rid of the absurd association with the genetic classification.

  69. Jakob Thompson

    Jakob Thompson

    8 dagen geleden

    I heard two tree puns. It was very sappy

  70. FlightlessChicken

    FlightlessChicken

    8 dagen geleden

    The hardest softwood is probably Pacific Yew, with a hardness of ~1600 to ~1700 lbf. That's harder than over 50% of hardwoods and as hard as hickory. Eastern Red Cedar (ERC, _Juniperus virginiana_ ) isn't even the hardest juniper, nevermind softwood, with the Alligator Juniper being 1160lbf; in the range of most oaks. Junipers are unusual in having unusually hard wood for gymnosperms. Interestingly the hard junipers, and yews, follow the hardness to density ratio of angiosperms while the soft ones follow the hardness to density ratio of gymnosperms. Angiosperms get harder with smaller increases in density than most gymnosperms. However, there is only data on a few junipers but the ones there is data on are mostly hard. It is interesting that almost all of the hardest gymnosperms occur in the clade that consists of Taxaceae and Cupressaceae Also ERC's growth rate isn't even that slow. It has a medium growth rate like some faster growing pines but slows when they gets older. It is harder than significantly slower growing gymnosperms. Junipers--like ERC--also have highly developed animal distribution methods which may explain their species richness and wide distribution. Edit: fixed italics and added more information

  71. Grandsome

    Grandsome

    8 dagen geleden

    Can't help but chuckle whenever he says hard wood. I need to grow up.

  72. a random man

    a random man

    8 dagen geleden

    Ironic.

  73. Anduril

    Anduril

    8 dagen geleden

    Video about how hardwood isn't hard wood, and people making jokes about "hard wood".

  74. Zhoutong Yang

    Zhoutong Yang

    9 dagen geleden

    We’ve been tricked, we’ve been backstabbed, and we’ve been, quite possibly, bamboozled.

    • Phosphorus4

      Phosphorus4

      2 dagen geleden

      BAMBOOzled?

  75. Sergei Burtsev

    Sergei Burtsev

    9 dagen geleden

    Thanks for the English lesson. We call them leafwood and pinewood in Russian.

  76. n0etic Fox

    n0etic Fox

    9 dagen geleden

    Odd I guess just being a bit of an outdoorsman I only would call a tree hardwood if it was hard to cut down. I wouldn't even call Aspen a hardwood. I mean I can hew an Aspen with very little effort but the Live Oak in my parent's yard... no. There is no chance I could cut through it, I would honestly rather try to cut Iron.

  77. Dev S

    Dev S

    9 dagen geleden

    This is a classic example of over-educated cosmopolitans talking about something they have no clue about because they don't build anything useful. Balsa is a softwood, and if you told me puffy carving blocks are a hardwood "well ackshually", because of some taxonomists arbitrary catalogue I wouldn't want to hear it.

    • FlightlessChicken

      FlightlessChicken

      8 dagen geleden

      Hardwood and softwood is not a scientific term. It's a term used more by industry than anyone else Edit: also angiosperm gymnosperm distinction is in no way arbitrary

  78. rob28803

    rob28803

    9 dagen geleden

    If hardwood is not hard wood, then the scientific definition is _wrong_ . Scientists should pick another term, and leave us normal people to use the word correctly, ie as intended.

    • FlightlessChicken

      FlightlessChicken

      8 dagen geleden

      Hardwood and softwood is *not* a scientific term. Angiosperm and gymnosperm is. Hardwood and softwood is more of an industry term

  79. ivan yuri

    ivan yuri

    9 dagen geleden

    I know this bc of matpat

  80. Liam York

    Liam York

    9 dagen geleden

    I’ll bet the words simply changed after we moved from axes to saws that gunked up when the wood was softer when wetter

  81. RsNewOld

    RsNewOld

    9 dagen geleden

    I LOVE THE OSRS/RuneScape reference!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  82. AvangionQ

    AvangionQ

    9 dagen geleden

    What are ironwood trees? How do they compare? I've seen ratings higher than 4390 LBF ... For example, Australian Buloke rates 5060 LBF. www.hitchcockandking.co.uk/h-k-news/top-10-hardest-woods-world/

  83. Corey B.

    Corey B.

    9 dagen geleden

    RUNESCAPE!

  84. Giorgi Orbeladze

    Giorgi Orbeladze

    9 dagen geleden

    2:29 more puns

    • Giorgi Orbeladze

      Giorgi Orbeladze

      9 dagen geleden

      Treemendus

  85. Michael Adler

    Michael Adler

    9 dagen geleden

    The resin-hardened heartwood of longleaf and slash pines is probably harder than any hardwood. You don't get that from fresh sawn live trees but the dead standing ones that the sapwood has rotted off of are almost as hard as a rock.

  86. craig engle

    craig engle

    9 dagen geleden

    Almost informational, not enough detail.

  87. Elie The Prof

    Elie The Prof

    9 dagen geleden

    My wood can be hard or soft. Just depends who's in front of me

  88. hawkturkey

    hawkturkey

    9 dagen geleden

    Is the hardest softwood harder than the softest hardwood?

  89. live4him4eva

    live4him4eva

    9 dagen geleden

    I did not miss that old school RuneScape reference there. Nice.

  90. Cameron Moreno

    Cameron Moreno

    9 dagen geleden

    The hardwood softwood classification as it exists is very helpful for mycology as most softwood has antifungal sap so most mushrooms that grow around then are symbiotic while mushrooms that grow around hardwoods eat the decaying material.

  91. Michael Fortier

    Michael Fortier

    9 dagen geleden

    dude cut an ent and broke his d axe...

  92. Nathanael Newton

    Nathanael Newton

    9 dagen geleden

    I had to rewind the video to make sure that the long-lasting campfire wasn't a field of lava caused by the fire engulfing the person sleeping

  93. Vít Skoták

    Vít Skoták

    9 dagen geleden

    I would like to point out, that this is probably problem in English, but in Czech hardwood means only that the wood is hard. We call angiosperms "krytosemené" meaning that they cover their seeds.

  94. Elizabeth Setlow

    Elizabeth Setlow

    9 dagen geleden

    Aaaaahhh the PUUUUUNS! THEY BUUURRRRRNNNN 🤦‍♀️

  95. Angela Hsiao

    Angela Hsiao

    9 dagen geleden

    Balsa is a hardwood???

  96. Queen Lion

    Queen Lion

    9 dagen geleden

    *"That’s right. Red wood. With a space in the middle. Wood that is red. You can’t touch me, Carrots, I've been doing this since I was born."*

  97. BIGgourami

    BIGgourami

    9 dagen geleden

    WOW! It's almost like scientific and colloquial categories were derived from different sources! The designation still has uses in other fields, so I doubt it's going anywhere any time soon.

  98. Timofei Gerasimov

    Timofei Gerasimov

    9 dagen geleden

    "leading to TREE-mendous species diversity" :-P

  99. biohazard737

    biohazard737

    9 dagen geleden

    Anyone else think of Animal Crossing?

  100. the Dark Angels Space Marine

    the Dark Angels Space Marine

    9 dagen geleden

    Life is a beautiful thing and you should cherish the moments of nature like this one

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